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  • Genetic factors account for up to 30% of inter-individual variability in drug metabolism and response
  • Severe drug reactions may account for about 5% of all hospitalizations and >100,000 annual deaths in the US
  • 59% of the 27 most commonly used drugs are metabolized by at least one enzyme with a variant allele associated with decreased function
  • Severe adverse drug effects ranks among the eight most frequent causes of death
  • 1 € spent for initial treatment = an additional 1 € spent to treat side effects